2015 study discusses potential to implant nano sensors into human organs to function as part of a wireless nanosensor network (WNSN) to possibly be used for intrabody disease detection. The article states that, “nanosensors deployed in WNSN, equipped with graphene-based nanopatch antennas , can detect symptoms or virus by means of molecules  or bacteria behaviors . In fact, the large surface area and the excellent electrical conductivity of graphene allow rapid electron transfer that facilitates accurate and selective detection of biomolecules.”
Design of Wireless Nanosensor Networks for Intrabody Application
July 27, 2015 | Authors: Suk Jin Lee,1 Changyong (Andrew) Jung, 2 Kyusun Choi, 3 and Sungun Kim 4 | Image
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks Volume 2015, Article ID 176761, 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/176761
Emerging nanotechnology presents great potential to change human society. Nanoscale devices are able to be included with Internet. This new communication paradigm, referred to as Internet of Nanothings (IoNT), demands very short-range connections among nanoscale devices. IoNT raises many challenges to realize it. Current network protocols and techniques may not be directly applied to communicate with nanosensors. Due to the very limited capability of nanodevices, the devices must have simple communication and simple medium sharing mechanism in order to collect the data effectively from nanosensors. Moreover, nanosensors may be deployed at organs of the human body, and they may produce large data. In this process, the data transmission from nanosensors to gateway should be controlled from the energy efficiency point of view. In this paper, we propose a wireless nanosensor network (WNSN) at the nanoscale that would be useful for intrabody disease detection. The proposed conceptual network model is based on On-Off Keying (OOK) protocol and TDMA framework. The model assumes hexagonal cell-based nanosensors deployed in cylindrical shape 3D hexagonal pole. We also present in this paper the analysis of the data transmission efficiency, for the various combinations of transmission methods, exploiting hybrid, direct, and multi-hop methods.
Nanoscale devices require a new communication paradigm; they perform simple tasks, share the collected data, and reach unprecedented number of locations over the Internet. This new network paradigm is called IoNT . In the IoNT, the new network architecture was proposed to accommodate two potential applications: interconnect nanoscale devices and interconnect offices. Our research work is focused on the intrabody communications for healthcare providers to develop the network system architecture for realizing IoNT applications. Human body is made up of almost 80 organs. Here, the nanosensors may be implanted into the organs, detecting specific symptom or virus and forwarding the sensing data to the nanorouter. The nanorouter may collect data from the nanosensors. The nanorouter then may send the collected data to the outside of the body.
The intrabody wireless communications encounter some difficulties that do not appear in regular propagation conditions because the human body has a lot of water. Firstly, in-body path loss model for homogeneous human tissues was investigated as a function of various parameters at 2.45 GHz range . In addition, it is also discussed that the terahertz (THz) band can be the potential solution to operate the future electromagnetic (EM) nanosensors . Moreover, the related studies reveal that the path loss in human tissues at very short distances (several millimeters) is not significant to deal well with communications among nanosensors at THz frequency range [4, 5]. Recently, the numerical analysis of EM wave propagation in the human body explains that using of EM paradigm is favorable compared with the molecular communication channel because the molecular channel attenuation is considerably higher than the situation using THz EM mechanism in terms of the path loss versus distance . On the other hand, the nanosensor, equipped with graphene-based nanopatch antennas, is envisaged to allow the implementation of nano-EM communications .
Nanonetworking is an emerging field, communicating among nanomachines and expanding the capability of a single nanomachine. Moreover, WNSN at the nanoscale may be useful for intrabody disease detection. For instance, nanosensors deployed in WNSN, equipped with graphene-based nanopatch antennas , can detect symptoms or virus by means of molecules  or bacteria behaviors . In fact, the large surface area and the excellent electrical conductivity of graphene allow rapid electron transfer that facilitates accurate and selective detection of biomolecules. According to Kuila et al., the advancement of graphene-based biosensors allows the application of graphene for the detection of glucose, Cyt-c (Cytochrome-c), NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Hydride), Hb (Hemoglobin), cholesterol, AA (Amino Acid), UA (Uric Acid), and DA (Diamino Acid) .
“Here the gateway (i.e., microscale device) makes it possible to remotely control the entire system over the internet.”